References or Read More

Annotated bibliography


Common Myths; What psychology says 
People attracted to younger boys have the ability to act responsibly just as much as anyone else. Research shows that many do not force, coerce, or manipulate younger boys to have sex with them. Many refrain from sex. 
Attraction to younger guys; What psychology says 
Men and youth attracted to younger guys may or may not act on their sexual feelings. There is evidence that many abstain from sex with younger guys, but it is unknown how many do so. According to some research, many interact with boys in a variety of non-sexual ways and sometimes develop close relationships with them.

Alexander, Margaret A., Sexual Offender Treatment Efficacy Revisited, in: Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, Vol. 11, No.2, 1999
[...] 79 sexual offender treatment outcome studies are reviewed, encompassing 10,988 subjects. Recidivism rates for treated versus untreated offenders are investigated according to age of offender, age of victim, offense type, type of treatment, location of treatment, decade of treatment, and length of follow-up. Each study is used as the unit of analysis, and studies are combined according to the number of treated versus untreated subjects who reoffended in each category. [...]
A variety of treated sexual offenders reoffend at rates below 11%. This finding, suggests that some effective components of the treatment process may have been identified.

The Associated Press, Re-arrest Less Likely for Sex Offenders; November 16, 2003 
Sex offenders are less likely to be rearrested after their release from prison than other criminals, a government study released Sunday finds. [...] The study found 5.3 percent of sex offenders were arrested for another sex crime after their release.

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Campbell, Terence W., Sexual Predator Evaluations and Phrenology: Considering Issues of Evidentiary Reliability, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 18: 111-130 (2000) 
This article reviews six assessment procedures used for assessing the recidivism risk of previously convicted sexual offenders. The review of these procedures examines whether they comply with generally accepted ethical and practice standards. With few exceptions, most risk assessment instruments fail to comply with these standards. Currently used instruments for risk assessment continue to rely excessively on clinical judgment; and, as a result, they remain at a preliminary stage of development. Consequently, these instruments amount to experimental procedures; and, therefore, they cannot support expert testimony in a legal proceeding.

Ferroul, Yves, Sexual perversion does not exist; Summary of a lecture at 15th World Congress of Sexology, Paris, June 2001
Many therapists designate various [sexual] practices as 'sexual perversion'. many magazine articles study the various classifications of those practices using implicit or explicit norms. Nevertheless, studying the human behavior in historical as well as actual societies, proves that sexual perversions do not exist.

Ferroul, Yves, La perversion sexuelle n'existe pas; Résumé d'un présentation au 15ème Congrès Mondial de Sexologie, Paris, Juin 2001
De très nombreux praticiens qualifient telle ou telle pratique de "perversion sexuelle", et de multiples articles étudient dans les revues les divers classements possibles de ces pratiques en fonction d'une norme explicite ou implicite. Or, l'étude des comportements sexuels humains, i historiquement et dans l'ensemble des sociétés actuelles, démontre que , par rapport à l'ensemble de l'humanité les perversions sexuelles n'existent pas.

Ferroul, Yves, Seksuele perversie bestaat niet; Samenvatting (vertaald) van een lezing op het 15e Wereld Congres voor Seeksuologie, Parijs, juni 2001
Veel therapeuten benoemen deze of gene [seksuele] praktijk als 'seksuele perversie'; vele artikelen in de vakbladen onderzoeken allerlei classificatiesystemen voor zulke praktijken en maken daarbij gebruik van impliciete of expliciete normen. Toch bewijst het bestuderen van het menselijk gedrag in vroegere of huidige samenlevingen dat seksuele perversies niet bestaan.

Fog, Agner, Ph.D, Paraphilias and Therapy, in: Nordisk Sexologi, vol. 10, no. 4, 1992, pp. 236-242.
A new model called the isolated minority syndrome is introduced in order to explain the behaviour of sexually deviant persons. The symptoms of this syndrome include a stereotypic and uncontrolled sexual behaviour and several unspecific social symptoms. The cause is a lack of appropriate identification model and non-acceptance of own sexual feelings. Group therapy in self-help groups is an effective treatment. There is reason to warn against traditional behaviour therapy which is ineffective, causes unnecessary psychological trauma, and increases the risk of violent sexual crimes. Traditional behaviour therapy is also criticized for ethical reasons.

Fog, Agner, Sexuelle Abweichungen und Therapie; in: Nordisk Seksologi, 10-4, 1992 (übersetzt von Marianne W. Bayer)
Ein neues Modell mit der Bezeichnung Syndrom der isolierten Minderheit wird eingeführt, um das Verhalten von Menschen mit sexuellen Abweichungen zu erklären. Zu den Symptomen dieses Syndroms zählen ein stereotypes und unbeherrschtes Sexualverhalten und einige unspezifische zwischenmenschliche Symptome. Die Ursache ist das Fehlen eines angemessenen Vorbilds als Identifikationsmöglichkeit und das Nichtakzeptieren der eigenen sexuellen Regungen. Gruppentherapie in Selbsthilfegruppen ist eine wirksame Behandlung. Es gibt Gründe, vor der üblichen Verhaltenstherapie zu waren, die hier unwirksam ist, unnötige seelische Traumen verursacht und das Risiko sexueller Gewalttaten erhöht. Auch aus ethischen Gründen wird die traditionelle Verhaltenstherapie kritisiert.

Frederiksen, Arne, Pedophilia, Science, and Self-deception, A Criticism of Sex Abuse Research

From DSM IV - TR (Revisited): Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders: 302.2 Pedophilia

Gieles, F., About 'Pedophilia' as a concept,
Summary of a lecture given by Frans E.J. Gieles, Ph.D. on 22 January 1997, introducing a panel discussion on pedophilia at Alcmaeon, the Utrecht [NL] Faculty Association for the Social Sciences. Dr. Gieles' specialty is special education.
[...] My proposal is that we not talk about "pedophilia," but about intimacy in relationships between young and old, and in doing so to indicate clearly what one means. [...]

Gieles, F., Über den Begriff 'Pädophilie'.
Zusammenfassung des Vortrags, mit dem der Heilpädagoge Dr. Frans E.J Gieles am 22. Januar 1997 eine Podiumsdiskussion über Pädophilie vor der Vereinigung der Ütrechter Sozialwissenschaftlichen Fakultät, Alcamaeon, eröffnete. Von Dr. Frans E.J. Gieles, Heilpädagoge
[...] Mein Vorschlag wäre also, nicht von Pädophilie zu reden, sondern von Intimität in Beziehungen, die Alt und Jung umfassen, und dabei klar zu sagen, was man meint. [...] 

Gieles, F., Over het begrip 'pedofilie'; Samenvatting van de inleidende lezing voor een forumgesprek over pedofilie voor de Utrechts Faculteitsvereniging der Sociale wetenschappen Alcmaeon op 22 januari 1997
[...] Mijn voorstel is dus om niet over 'pedofilie' te spreken, maar over intimiteit in jeugd-ouderen relaties en hierbij wel duidelijk aan te geven wat men bedoelt. [...]

De 'pedofilia' como un concepto 
Sumario de un discurso dado par Frans E.J. Gieles Ph.D, el 22 enero 1997, presentado una discusión de panel con respeto a pedofilia, en Alcmæon, el Asociación de Facultad por los ciencias Sociales de Utrecht, los Países Bajos. 
[...] Mi propuesta es que no hablamos de 'pedofilia', sino de intimidad en relaciones entre joven y adolescente o adulto; y en hacerlo indicar claramente lo que uno quiere decir. [...] 

Gieles, F.E.J., About Recidivism; a meta-analysis reviewed, (Hanson & Bussière, Predicting Relapse, 1998) ,1999.

Gieles, F.E.J., Over recidive gesproken... Een meta-analyse, besproken, 1999

Gieles, F., "I didn’t know how to deal with it", Young people speak about their sexual contacts with adults, 1998.

Gieles, Frans, "Ik wist er geen raad mee", Jongeren spreken achteraf over vrijwillig aangegane sexuele contacten met volwassenen, In: NVSH LwgJORis Nieuwsbrief nr 45, april 1997

Gieles, F., No Cure but Control, 1998

  1. From The Netherlands: The Frenken way of thinking
  2. From the UK: The treatment of imprisoned sex offenders, Program, development, from HM Prison Service (SOTP Report, February 1996) 
  3. Psychology a fake science that abuses public, says expert

Gieles, F.E.J., Is pedophilia a mental disorder? Discussion in Archives of Sexual Behavior - Report - In Ipce Newsletter E15, March 2003
The December 2002 issue is a special about pedophilia.
Richard Green argues for the removal of pedophilia from the DSM, the famous handbook that defines psychiatric illnesses, among which is pedophilia, albeit under certain conditions.
Gunter Schmidt says that not all pedophiles are per se unscrupulous molesters; instead pedophiles have a problem of conscience, a moral dilemma, and they deserve respect rather than condemnation.
There follow peer comments from 21 authors give peer comments, after which Green and Schmidt reply.
In this Newsletter, I give the following report.

Gieles, F.E.J., Een Doorbraak in het Denken? Is pedofilie een ziekte? Discussie in Archives of Sexual Behavior - Een Verslag - Vertaald uit: Ipce Newsletter E15, March 2003.
Het december 2002 nummer van Archives of Sexual Behavior is een themanummer over pedofilie.
Richard Green houdt een pleidooi om pedofilie te schrappen uit het DSM, het Diagnostic & Statistical Manual - het Diagnostisch en Statistisch Handboek) het bekende handboek dat psychische ziekten definieert. Daaronder is ook pedofilie, zij het onder zekere voorwaarden. 
Gunter Schmidt schrijft dat niet alle pedofielen per se gewetenloze aanranders zijn; eerder hebben mensen met pedofiele gevoelens een gewetensprobleem, een moreel dilemma. Zij verdienen eerder respect dan veroordeling.
Dan volgen 21 commentaren van andere auteurs, waarna Green en Schmidt weer reageren.
In dit artikel geef ik een verslag van deze discussie.
Een doorbraak ik het denken?
Of op zijn minst in de manier van discussiëren? 

Grubin, Don & Wingate, Sarah, Sexual Offence Recidivism: Prediction versus understanding; from:  Grubin, D. & Wingate, S.; Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 6, 349-359 1996 Whurr Publishers Ltd. Pages 349 - 357
This paper identifies from the literature risk factors for reoffending in convicted sex offenders. Unless all sex offenders are to be incarcerated for indeterminate lengths of time, some means to separate higher from lower risk men is clearly necessary. The complexities of the move from identifying high-risk groups to predicting risk in specific individuals is discussed. It is argued that the focus should be shifted from the search for single, putatively predictive variables to an attempt to understand why recidivism occurs.

Hanson, R. Karl & Bussière, Monique T. , Predictors of sexual offender recidivism, a meta-analysis, Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1996    
This review provides a quantitative summary of recidivism risk factors for sexual offenders. Based on 61 different data sets, approximately one third of the 165 predictor variables were significantly related to recidivism (p < .05) with correlations of .10 or greater. Sexual offense recidivism was best predicted by measures of sexual deviance (e.g., deviant sexual preferences, prior sexual offenses), and, to a lesser extent, general criminological factors (e.g., age, total prior offenses). The predictors of nonsexual violent recidivism and general recidivism were similar to those recidivism predictors found among nonsexual criminals. No single factor was sufficiently related to recidivism, however, to justify its use in isolation. There remains a need for research to identify changeable, dynamic risk factors.

Hanson, R. Karl & Bussière, Monique T. , Les prédicteurs de la récidive chez les délinquants sexuels: une méta-analyse, 1996-04; Travaux publics et Services gouvernementaux Canada
L'analyse ici présentée a permis de tracer un tableau quantitatif des facteurs de risque de la récidive chez les délinquants sexuels. En se basant sur 61 ensembles de données, il a été possible d'établir l'existence d'une relation significative entre le tiers environ des 165 variables et la récidive (p < 0,05), la corrélation étant d'au moins 0,10. Les mesures de la déviance sexuelle (par ex., préférences sexuelles déviantes, infractions sexuelles antérieures) et, à un moindre degré, les facteurs criminologiques généraux (par ex., âge, nombre total d'infractions antérieures) se sont révélés les meilleurs prédicteurs de la récidive de nature sexuelle. Les prédicteurs de la récidive non sexuelle et avec violence et de la récidive en général étaient semblables aux prédicteurs de la récidive relevés chez les criminels n'ayant pas commis d'infractions d'ordre sexuel. Toutefois, aucun facteur n'était suffisamment lié à la récidive pour que son usage exclusif soit justifié. Il faut poursuivre les recherches pour cerner des facteurs de risque dynamiques, c'est-à-dire susceptibles de changer.

Hanson, Karl R., & Harris, Andrew, Dynamic Predictors Of Sexual Recidivism, 1998-1,
Corrections Research, Department of the Solicitor General Canada
Carefully monitoring the risk indicators identified in this study should help officers to provide graduated and responsive interventions well before the point of no return.

Hanson, R. Karl & Harris, Andrew, Les prédicteurs dynamiques de la récidive sexuelle, 1998 - 01, Recherche correctionnelle, Ministère du Solliciteur général du Canada    
Une surveillance attentive des indicateurs de risque cernés dans l’étude ici présentée devrait aider les agents à intervenir de façon progressive et adaptée bien avant qu’il soit trop tard.

Hanson, R. Karl & Bussière, Monique T, Predicting Relapse: A meta-Analysis of Sexual Offender Recidivism Studies, Department of the Solicitor General of Canada.
In: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1998, Vol. 66, No. 2, pp 348-362
"Evidence from 61 follow-up studies was examined to identify the factors most strongly related to recidivism among sexual offenders. On average, the sexual offense recidivism rate was low (13.4%; n = 23.393). There were, however, subgroups of offenders who recidivated at high rates. Sexual offense recidivism was best predicted by measures of sexual deviancy (e.g., deviant sexual preferences, prior sexual offenses) and, to a lesser extent, by general criminological factors (e.g., age, total prior offenses). Those offenders who failed to complete treatment were at higher risk for reoffending than those who completed treatment. The predictors of nonsexual violent recidivism and general (any) recidivism were similar to those predictors found among nonsexual criminals (e.g., prior violent offenses, age, juvenile delinquency). Our results suggest that applied risk assessments of sexual offenders should consider separately the offender's risk for sexual and nonsexual recidivism.

Hood, Roger; Shute, Stephen; Feilzer, Martina; & Wilcox, Aidan; Sex offenders emerging from long-term imprisonment; A Study of Their Long-term Reconviction Rates and of Parole Board Members' Judgements of Their Risk; Brit. J. of Crimon., (2002) 42, 371-394  
This study challenges a number of preconceptions about the risks posed by sex offenders who have been sentenced to long determinate terms of imprisonment: 162 prisoners were followed-up for four years and 94 for six years. 
[...] the low reconviction rate of serious sexual offenders for another sexual offence is confirmed. Even after six years it remains below 10 per cent [...] 
[...] This study found that only 1.2 per cent had been imprisoned again for a sexual crime, and less than 5 per cent for a sexual or serious violent crime, within two years of their release. These facts need to be more widely recognized and disseminated if there is to be rational debate on this emotive subject.  
[...] The evidence from this study suggests that Board members over-estimated, in particular, the risk of reconviction of sex offenders who had committed their crimes wholly within their own family unit as well as the risk of reconviction posed by 'deniers'. 

Howitt, Dennis, The Treatment of Paedophiles; [External link]

Two sections of Chapter 7 of Paedophiles and Sexual Offences against Children: Introduction to Chapter 7 (pp 189 - 192) and Support Therapies (pp 215 - 218)
The ideological basis of therapy for paedophilia, by and large, remained hostile and based on its elimination. A very small number of therapists have adopted a rather different stance much more supportive of the paedophile. Such approaches illustrate by contrast some of the moral, ethical and ideological implications of conventional treatment. They are described as support therapies.

Lotke, Eric, Politics and Irrelevance: Community Notification Statutes, in: the Federal Sentencing Reporter, September/October 1997 - Volume 10, No. 2
Legislation passed in the emotional aftermath of horrifying crimes is not the best path to a safe society. The time and money presently directed toward maintaining offender databases and designing notification schemes should be redirected to create and expand high quality treatment regimes. Treatment should be part of the sentence for people convicted of sex crimes, and available for those who identify themselves independent of the legal process. Trained counselors can detect emotional backsliding before it leads to completed actions, and they can intervene more effectively than barely informed neighbors. Long term therapy and strategies designed to normalize and reintegrate the lives of offenders in the community are the most promising path to neighborhood safety.

Kirkegaard, Hugh & Northey, Wayne, The Sex Offender as Scapegoat, Vigilante Violence and a Faith Community Response; Emory.edu/College.
In May of 1996, an offender was released from prison to a halfway house in Toronto.  The response of the community to his presence in their midst was anger and hostility, and the insistence that corrections officials remove him. [...]
Viewed through the lens of mimetic theory these realities beg the question, ‘Is it possible that sex offenders have become scapegoats among us?’ [...]
[...] how we view and treat the perpetrators of these crimes in our communities, says something about us and the human condition. [...]
In summary, scapegoats are different, vulnerable, illegitimate, and powerful.
The violence of the scapegoat is reciprocated in a cycle of violence such that the "contagion" emanating from the scapegoating response appears worse than the original "disease". [...]
In a paradoxical way perhaps the sex offender has something to teach us about ourselves, our own sexuality, our understanding of community.

Kirkegaard, Hugh & Wayne Northey, De zedendelinquent als zondebok; Voorkom geweld - het antwoord van een geloofsgemeenschap; Vertaling van The Sex Offender as Scapegoat; Vigilante Violence and a Faith Community Response; Emory.edu/College

[...] Bezien vanuit de nabootsingstheorie rechtvaardigen dit soort gebeurtenissen de vraag: 'Is het mogelijk zo dat seksuele delinquenten  de zondebokken onder ons zijn geworden?' [...]
Vier processen markeren het zondebokverschijnsel: [...]
Er zijn twee kenmerken van de hedendaagse samenleving die ertoe bijdragen de seksuele delinquent als zondebok te zien. [...]
Met op de achtergrond deze visie op een verzoenend rechtstelsel en de harde werkelijkheid van het tot zondebok verklaren van misdadigers heeft de geloofsgemeenschap in Ontario een antwoord gevonden op het dilemma van de seksuele delinquenten die uit de gevangenis terugkeerden naar de samenleving. [...]

In de afgelopen vijf jaar heeft het eerste project in Toronto 32 steunkringen opgericht in Toronto en Hamilton. [...] Vanwege het succes van deze benadering hebben in het afgelopen jaar zes kerkelijke gemeenschappen in Canada nieuwe steunkringen opgericht; er zijn er nu 45. 

Kokish, Ron, Sex offender treatment: Does it work? Is it worth it?
Given available data, it appears that out patient programs do much better than 11 - 14% offense reduction. In fact, it does not seem unreasonable to assume we reduce reoffenses by a third, that we teach offenders some empathy, so that they treat others better in non-sexual ways as well, and that we make a significant contribution to their social functioning (reduce non-sexual crimes, improve employment performance, etc.)

Naerssen, Alex van, Man-Boy Lovers: Assessment, Counseling, and Psychotherapy
Clinical experiences with  36 males, between the ages of 21 and 60 are described. All of them felt an enduring sexual attraction for boys. Sixteen males were treated for sexual identity conflicts. For eight of them this ended in a positive self-labeling as pedophile, the others had severe problems with accepting sexuality as positive and lustful. Twenty males were treated for identity management problems and counseled how to handle their relationships with boys. Several modalities of interpersonal interaction in man-boy relationships are proposed and the ways conflicts can arise within these frames of reference are explored in counseling and psychotherapy.

Nagayama Hall, G. C.,   Hirschman, R. & Oliver, L.L., Sexual Arousal and Arousability to Pedophilic Stimuli in a Community Sample of Normal Men, in: Behavior Therapy 26, 681-694, 1995.
The current results suggest that sexual arousal to pedophilic stimuli occurs among a sizable minority of normal men who report no pedophilic behavior and is not necessarily associated with pedophilic behavior.

Neustatter, Angela, Sympathy for the Devil? Focus: The paedophile threat; October 20, 2002 The Observer 
Pervert, monster, evil. That is our gut reaction to men who harm children. Yet evidence shows that, to contain the menace of paedophilia, we need to understand what drives the abusers. 
[...] Helping offenders to live normal lives within society is precisely the aim of the three befriending projects that began this summer with Home Office funding. They are modelled on the Canadian experience, which now offers 33 befriending circles for sex offenders.

Not all Sex Offenders are Homicidal Maniacs; April 19, 2005 (PRWEB) 
Despite recent news reports that make it seem like a common occurrence, according to a recent report by the US Department of Justice, only a tiny minority [just 0.5%] of all sex offenders re-offend and commit murder.

Myths and Facts About Sex Offenders, August 2000, csom.org.
There are many misconceptions about sexual offenses, sexual offense victims, and sex offenders in our society. Much has been learned about these behaviors and populations in the past decade and this information is being used to develop more effective criminal justice interventions throughout the country. This document serves to inform citizens, policy makers, and practitioners about sex offenders and their victims, addressing the facts that underlie common assumptions both true and false in this rapidly evolving field.

O'Carroll, Tom, Is paedophilia violent?  A paper prepared for the World Congress of Sexology, Paris 2001
This paper challenges the appropriateness of viewing pedophilia [...] in terms of violence. The literature on personality and behavioural aspects of paedophilia is reviewed with particular reference to "preferential" as opposed to "situational" paedophilia. Evidence on harm to children commonly attributed to adult-child sexual contacts is considered, as is the validity and value of the "consent" construct in the light of recent research. The unscientific attribution of violence to paedophilia as a supposedly inherent characteristic is discussed, particularly with regard to lines of feminist analysis founded on issues of power imbalance in personal relationships

O'Carroll, Tom, Ist Pädophilie Gewalt? [Html file] Manuskript -- eingereicht beim World Congress of Sexology, Paris 2001  -  [PDF File]
Dieser Beitrag stellt die Angemessenheit der Auffassung in Frage, die Pädophilie als Gewalt verstehen will. Die Literatur über Persönlichkeits- und Verhaltensaspekte der Pädophilie wird unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Neigungs-Pädophilie - im Gegensatz zur opportunistischen - gewürdigt. Die Hinweise auf Schäden, die bei sexuellen Kontakten zwischen Kindern und Erwachsenen gerne vermutet werden, werden genauso im Lichte jüngerer Forschungen behandelt wie Wert und Validität des Begriffes der Einvernehmlichkeit. Die unwissenschaftliche Zuschreibung von Gewaltsamkeit als angeblich inhärenter Charakteristik der Pädophilie wird insbesondere im Blick auf Traditionen feministischer Kritik des Machtungleichgewichtes in persönlichen Beziehungen diskutiert.

Only three percent [source & date unknown]
A recent report of the American Justice Department report looked at almost ten thousand sex offenders released in 1994 and found that only three percent were subsequently convicted of another sex offence, a much lower rate than for other crimes.

Outcome research - Where is it?
We reviewed Volumes 1, 2, and 4 of Sage Publications 1995 "VIOLENCE" AND ABUSE ABSTRACTS." (misplaced #3 - sorry! It's probably not very different.) There's a section in each issue headed, "Psycho-therapeutic Intervention and Treatment." We found 52 abstracts under that heading. [...]
In the 1980's, this kind of research led to the virtual abandonment of psychodynamic treatment of sex offenders in favor of cognitive - behavioral approaches that have proved more fruitful. Before that, as early as the 1950's and 60's, outcome research showed the futility of psychodynamic treatment of delinquents and highlighted more hopeful results with the "therapeutic community," or "guided group interaction" model that is now so widely used.

Peterson, Heather Elizabeth,  "Not an Oxymoron", Christian Pedophiles Form Online Support Groups; Greenbelt Interfaith News, Philia, December 1998
Julius had no choice but to be a criminal. This was the message he received almost daily as he opened his newspaper or watched television. News reports said that people like himself were unable to control their sexuality and used their sexuality to destroy innocent victims. Everything he heard made him worry that he too might follow this path.

Ree, Frank van, Intimate relationships between young people and adults; Are there criteria for a positive experience?
Both sexual abuse of children and consensual love relationships between young people and adults are found in all cultures and in all periods of history. Although research statistics show otherwise, at present the notion has taken hold in many countries that a difference in age inevitably results in damaging consequences. Some time ago, an extensive exchange of ideas took place in the newsletter published by the National Workgroup JORis (Younger-Older Relationships, intimacy, sexuality) of the Dutch Association for Sexual Reform (NVSH), about the criteria which an intimate relationship with a young person must meet in order to preclude harm at a later age, based on positions which had been formulated earlier by the Danish Pedophile Association. Remedial educationalist Dr. Frans Gieles took the position in this discussion that in the present situation adults should act with restraint in pedophile and ephebophile relationships, because they bear the responsibility also for the damage which social rejection (whether or not after the fact) can bring about. We asked the retired Dutch psychiatrist Dr. Frank van Ree about his view of this. Dr. Van Ree has written many publications and doesn't shy away from taking an independent position. As this article shows, he has passed on this way of thinking to his children as well.

Ree, Frank van,  Intime Beziehungen zwischen Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen; Gibt es Kriterien für einen guten Kontakt? KOINOS MAGAZINE #24 (1999/4)
Sowohl sexueller Mißbrauch von Kindern als auch freiwillige Liebesbeziehungen zwischen Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen kommen in allen Kulturen und zu allen Zeiten vor. Obwohl Forschungsergebnisse ein anderes Bild zeigen, hat sich zur Zeit in vielen Ländern die Meinung herausgebildet, daß ein Altersunterschied auf jeden Fall schädliche Folgen nach sich ziehen würde. Vor einiger Zeit fand im Nachrichtenbulletin der Nationalen Arbeitsgruppe JORis (Beziehungen, Intimität und Sexualität zwischen Jugendlichen und Älteren) der Niederländischen Vereinigung für sexuelle Reform (NVSH) ein umfassender Gedankenaustausch über die Kriterien statt, die eine intime Beziehung mit einem Jugendlichen erfüllen muß, damit Schäden im späteren Leben vermieden werden, und zwar auf der Grundlage von bereits früher von der Danish Pedophile Association aufgestellten Thesen. Der Heilpädagoge Dr. Frans Gieles vertrat dabei den Standpunkt, daß sich in der heutigen Realität Erwachsene bei pädophilen und ephebophilen Beziehungen sehr zurückhaltend verhalten sollten, weil sie auch die Verantwortung für Schäden tragen, die eine gesellschaftliche Ablehnung, sei es sofort oder im nachhinein, verursachen kann. Wir baten den pensionierten niederländischen Psychiater Dr. Frank van Ree um seine Sicht der Dinge. Van Ree hat viele Beiträge veröffentlicht und sich dabei nicht gescheut, eine unabhängige Einstellung an den Tag zu legen. Wie aus dem nachstehenden Beitrag hervorgeht, hat er es verstanden, diese Einstellung auch seinen Kindern mit auf den Weg zu geben
Ree, Frank van, Intieme relaties tussen jongeren en volwassenen, Zijn er criteria voor een goed contact? in Koinos Magazine #24 (1999/4)
Zowel seksueel misbruik van kinderen als vrijwillige liefdesrelaties tussen jongeren en volwassenen komen in alle culturen en in alle tijden voor. Hoewel onderzoekscijfers anders aantonen, heeft momenteel in veel landen de opvatting post gevat dat leeftijdsverschil hoe dan ook schadelijke gevolgen met zich meebrengt. Enige tijd geleden vond er een uitgebreide gedachtewisseling plaats in het nieuwsbulletin van de Landelijke Werkgroep JORis (Jongere-Oudere Relaties, intimiteit, seksualiteit) van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Seksuele Hervorming (NVSH), over de criteria waaraan een intieme relatie met een jongere moet voldoen om schade op latere leeftijd uit te sluiten, uitgaand van stellingen die al eerder waren geformuleerd door de Danish Pedophile Association. Orthopedagoog Dr. Frans Gieles nam daarbij het standpunt in dat in de huidige werkelijkheid volwassenen zich bij pedofiele en efebofiele relaties zeer terughoudend dienen op te stellen, omdat zij ook de verantwoordelijkheid dragen voor schade die maatschappelijke afwijzing, al of niet achteraf, teweeg kan brengen. Wij vroegen de gepensioneerde Nederlandse psychiater Dr. Frank van Ree naar zijn visie hierover. Van Ree heeft veel publicaties op zijn naam staan en schuwt daarbij niet zich onafhankelijk op te stellen. Zoals uit onderstaande bijdrage blijkt, heeft hij die opstelling ook aan zijn kinderen weten mee te geven.

The Research of Rind, Bauserman & Tromovitch is put together in a separate file.

Robinson, David, Treatment of Sex Offenders; A section from: Research on Sex Offenders: What do we Know? by David Robinson
Based on the most recent Canadian studies, estimated recidivism rates for treated sex offenders fall in the vicinity of about 10%. If 20% is used as a rough estimate of the recidivism rate for untreated sex offenders, it appears that treatment can have an appreciable impact on sex offender recidivism.

Sandfort, Theo, Constructive Questions Regarding Paedophilia, Paidika # 4
In the literature concerning paedophilia, it is generally seen as a paraphilia or a perversion. [*1] Here I shall consider whether all sexual involvement between adults and children is appropriately labeled paedophilia, and whether it might not be useful to consider paedophilia as an identity.

Sex Offender Treatment Program: Initial Recidivism Study; Executive Summary, by the Alaska Department of Corrections, Offender Programs; Alaska Justice Statistical Analysis Unit, Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, August 15, 1996
This research demonstrates that treatment can and does work, certainly for some offenders. It works by reducing the incidence of sexual re-offense or by prolonging the time until re-offense. Either of these results reduces the number of victims in the community. When treatment does not work for certain offenders this information is equally important.

Spiecker, Ben & Steutel, Jan, Paedophilia, Sexual Desire and Perversity, in: Journal of Moral Education 09/01/1997 
In our society adults who are guilty of having sex with prepubescent children often have a paedophile disposition. This paper first criticises the justifications that are given by paedophiles for having sex with children. Part of this criticism is a brief analysis of "sexual desire" and "erotic". Next, the question is raised whether paedophile activities can ever be morally permissible. Using the principles of mutual consent and non-exploitation as touchstone, the question is answered in the negative. Finally, it is examined whether paedophile desires can be regarded as perverse. In order to deal with this issue a moral conception of perversions is proposed.

Steutel, Jan & Spiecker, Ben, The Good, the Bad, and the Pedophile; Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, PES Yearbook 1999]
We think that a pedophile may or even should be blamed for not controlling his sexual urges under certain circumstances. And there are perhaps good reasons, as many people think, to consider a pedophile who indulges in sex with children as morally bad. But one consequence of our analysis is that blaming persons for being a pedophile, as many people do, may be just as bad.

Grace, Kristen A. & Vivian, Craig, Moral Education and the Limits of Virtue; Cornell University; PES Yearbook 1999
One role of moral education may be to enable us to separate what is "me" from what is "mine" or to recognize that some of my desires get in the way of my larger vision of the good life. I may not be able to eliminate malicious desires, but I may try to live in such a way that I am not dominated by those desires over which I have some control. In this sense, striving for harmony in the face of imperfection can be a moral project.

Trow, Richard, Paedophile programmes work; Study 03 November 2003 STUFF National News [New Zealand] 
Treating paedophiles in the community significantly reduces sexual re-offending, a study shows. [...]
Offenders who completed the programmes had a recidivism rate of 5 per cent. In two control groups that did not receive treatment, rates were 21 per cent and 25 per cent, Wellington Stop manager Hamish Dixon said.

Understanding Juvenile Sexual Offending Behavior; Emerging Research, Treatment Approaches and Management Practices, CSOM.org, December 1999
Adolescents account for a significant percentage of the sexual assaults against children and women in our society. The onset of sexual behavior problems in juveniles appears to be linked to a number of factors, including child maltreatment and exposure to violence. Emerging research suggests that, as in the case of adult sex offenders, a meaningful distinction can be made between juveniles who target peers or adults and those who offend against children. The former group appears generally to be more antisocial and violent, although considerable variation exists within each population. Although available research does not suggest that the majority of sexually abusive youth are destined to become adult sex offenders, legal and mental health intervention can have significant impacts on deterring further sexual offending. Currently, the most effective intervention consists of a combination of legal sanctions and specialized clinical programming.

Visser, Reverend Hans, Pastorate and pedophilia, Minister of St. Paul's Church,
Rotterdam, The Netherlands, , December 18, 1998; Symposium: The other side of the medallon.
Pedophiles nowadays live in a difficult time. They are not accepted by society. They are even hunted, stigmatized and criminalized. There is no space at the time for a good dialogue with pedophiles about their orientation. Very sad is the attitude of the major Dutch churches. They do not distance themselves from the pedophile as a person, but do distance themselves from his sexual orientation. How is it possible to accept a person without his orientation? Every pedophile act is seen as abuse. It is my firm conviction that the present hunt on pedophiles is extremely counter-productive. These people are left to their fate. We push them into a big swamp, they have to manage on their own, "as long as they do not touch my children".

Wakefield, Hollida & Underwager, Ralph, Assessing Violent Recidivism in Sexual Offenders, In: ipt, volume 10, 1998
ABSTRACT: Forensic and clinical psychologists have long been asked to make predictions about violence, despite the fact that, in the past, such predictions have been notoriously inaccurate.  Several states now have sexual predator laws which require predictions to be made concerning the likelihood of recidivism.  Since the U.S. Supreme Court in Kansas v. Hendricks (1997) upheld Kansas's sexual predator laws, such requests are likely to increase in the future.  Fortunately, there is now ongoing empirical research which has improved psychologists' ability to predict violence in high risk groups.  Several schemes for predict violence are in the process of research and development.

Wingert, Patrice, Straight Talk, A conversation with the psychologists behind this week's other gay study, which shows "this kind of heterosexual shift is difficult and extremely rare", Newsweek Web Exclusive, May 10, 2001
The debate over whether sexual orientation is a choice was reignited this week with the release of two new-and opposing-studies on the outcome of "reparative" therapies, which purport to convert gays and lesbians into heterosexuals. Both papers were released in New Orleans on Wednesday at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, the group that ruled in 1973 that homosexuality is not a mental disorder that requires treatment. Neither study has been peer-reviewed or published. [...]
However, a similar study-conducted by Columbia psychologist Ariel Shidlo and Michael Schroeder, a psychologist in private practice in Manhattan-studied 202 participants and found 178 failures. In fact, only six said they had successfully completed a "heterosexual shift"; another 18 described themselves as currently asexual or confused about their orientation. For this study, the doctors also wanted participants who had gone through conversion therapy-but this time they looked for them randomly, via the Internet, newspaper ads and groups offering reparative counseling.

Zessen, Gertjan van, A Model for Group Counseling with Male Pedophiles , Journal of Homosexuality 20, 1/2, 1990  
Group treatment programs for pedophiles are often designed for populations of convicted men in closed institutions with limited application to other populations. Treatment is usually focused on reducing the ‘deviant” sexual arousal and/or acquiring heterosocial skills and eventually establishing the ability to engage in adult heterosexual relationships. A six-week highly structured program is presented to five men in anon-residential setting. In addition to individual psychotherapy, group counseling is offered. Male pedophiles, arc trained to talk effectively about common problems surrounding man-boy relationships. Counseling is based on the notion that the emotional, erotic and sexual attraction to boys per se docs not need to be legitimized or modified. The attraction, however, can be a source of psychological and social problems that can
be handled by using a social support system. Social support for pedophile problems can be obtained from and in interaction with other pedophiles.

Zur Notwendigkeit pädophiler Selbsthilfegruppen, Wolfgang K. und Paul S., Mailand und München im September 1997; Überarbeitung Januar 1998
Das Gesprächsforum der Pädo-Selbsthilfegruppe ist der einzige Ort, wo Betroffene oft zum ersten Mal ohne Angst vor Ablehnung und Repression mit anderen ihre Neigungen und Nöte teilen und erkennen können, daß sie damit nicht allein sind. Dadurch kann das oft angeschlagene Selbstbewußtsein des Einzelnen gestärkt werden. Der Teilnehmer erhält die Chance, seine durch den Normdruck gebrochene Identität (wieder-)zu finden und in sozialer Realität zu stabilisieren. Denn nur im Gespräch von Gleich zu Gleich erfährt er das Feedback, das er vorbehaltlos zu akzeptieren vermag.